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29 May 1999
Intellectual property
Andrew Rice,

Just when you thought it was safe to ignore my last column's advice and go spend your hard-earned millions buying some overpriced domain name real estate, a judge goes and rules that domain names aren't even property.

That's right, folks. According to Judge James Ware of the U.S. District Court in San Jose, California, domain names are, in fact, nothing more than a service, just like your phone number or your PO box.

The case that led to Judge Ware offering his ruling reads like something out of a con artist's how-to handbook. Way back in early 1994--the virtual Pleistocene of the World Wide Web--an entrepreneur named Gary Kremen read the writing on the bathroom wall and realized that someday soon sex online was going to mean big money. And what better way to cash in than to own the domain The early bird gets the worm, and Kremen was nothing if not early. He got the goods. While he was at it he nabbed a bunch of other domains such as and and set about building businesses around them.

Meanwhile, twice-convicted embezzler Stephen Cohen was cooling his heels in Lompoc Federal Pen for bamboozling an elderly woman out of $200,000. Those educational programs in Lompoc must have been ahead of the curve on the Internet game because, while the rest of us were still thinking that the Internet might yield a good support group, Cohen had lasered in on its commercial potential.

Less than a year after getting out of the pokey in February 1995, Cohen allegedly had forged a letter from a non-existent president of Online Classifieds, Kremlin's umbrella company for his several Internet businesses, and hornswoggled InterNIC, the domain name registrar partly developed by Network Solutions, into giving him the domain.

When Kremen discovered the theft of his domain he contacted Network Solutions, thinking they'd quickly give the valuable dot-com back to its rightful registrar. No such luck. Company policy is to remain above the fray and let contenders battle it out, even, as in this case, when the motives and background of one of the parties clearly are under a black cloud.

The commercial potential of was harder to realize than you might imagine. Armed with his ill-gotten domain, Cohen initially used it to spearhead a campaign to create what one person involved termed "the Caesar's palace of brothels" in either Nevada or on a private island. His Fantasy Island, named Wanaleiya, never panned out, but the explosion of online porn sites did, and was at ground zero.

These days the site does an estimated $100 million a year. Although some of that comes from subscribers who kick down $25 a month to look at porn, the lion's share comes from other porn sites that pay up to a million a month for banner ads that will drive traffic to their less name-advantaged sites. No wonder Kremen is pissed.

Kremen sued both Network Solutions and Cohen under the theory that Cohen stole Kremen's property and that NSI were complicit in the theft because they refused to intervene. Judge Ware, however, saw things quite differently. Clearly, given those kinds of revenues, control of is a valuable asset. But in his summary motion to dismiss the suit against Network Solutions, Ware agreed that a domain registration is more like your phone number than, say, your car. If someone steals your car, you call the cops and get the person arrested. But if someone forges a letter to the phone company and steals your phone number, the phone company is only liable for giving you a replacement. Of course, there really is no replacing those lucrative nine letters,, but that's the theory.

Kremen was outraged, saying, "If you follow the logic here, it's open season for stealing domains."

Network Solutions CEO Jim Rutt called the ruling a clear win, saying, "[It] sharply defines the role of the registrar as a service provider, bound only to the terms of its service agreement."

Cohen isn't out of the woods yet. Kremen's lawsuit against the alleged dot-com grifter is pending in 2001. It's possible that if his lawyers can prove that Cohen actually forged the transfer letter he may prevail in having the high-grossing porn site domain transferred back and might even collect damages.

In the meantime, time to load up the shotgun and double padlock your valuable domains.


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